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Annotated Bibliography Sample

An annotated bibliography is a list where you gather all the references that you have used on your paper. An annotated bibliography has to include a comment or critical evaluation about each source. You can read some examples of annotated bibliography APA to see how it has to be done. An annotated bibliography APA is important because it helps to demonstrate your critical thinking skills. It is a way to prove that you have researched the subject and that you know what you are talking about.

An APA annotated bibliography is a reference list that follows the APA style requirements. It has to include a title, a page runner, a page number and the references alphabetically organized. The main features of this style state that it has to be written using a Times New Roman font, 12 pt. and the text has to be double-spaced. Check some examples of annotated bibliography in APA format so you can get an idea on how you have to write yours.

 

Kalhor, A., Shahi, H., & Horri, M. S. (2014). Effect of culture on international trade: case study of saffron export. Indian J. Sci. Res, 4(6), 381-388.

Kalhor et al. (2014), in this article, indicated language and culture in international trade affect the marketing and packaging of products. Culture causes a difference in the marketing environment in terms of numbers, color, and form which may affect the sale of the product. The authors give an example of Europe where a 250g packaging for foods is in high demand while in the USA 4-liter milk packages are valued. Germans also prefer cans while Americans prefer goods packaged in glass. The effect of culture and language also extends to trade name that a business uses especially in export operations. The language could affect the meaning of trade name in the targeted audience as well as the conveyance of meaning of form and symbol that is applied in the advertisement of the product. For example, when IBM wanted to sell series 44 computer to Japan, it had to change to other words and remove the number 4 because in Japanese it means death. To overcome this challenge, Kalhor et al. (2014) noted that businesses should package their products in line with cultural and social factors. They should also increase the customer-focus culture and understand the values of their customers.

Danciu, V. (2011). International Business Negotiation Under the Impact of Cultural Distance. Romanian Economic Journal, 14(42), 175-195.

Differences in culture and language affect negotiation. Negotiation is a way of communication for a business. This difference is referred to as cultural distance in this study. Cultural distance affects the style of negotiation, thinking process and decision making. It also influences communication and interactivity during talks. For example, North Americans who are a low context culture focus on better and quicker solutions during negotiations while the Japanese consider negotiations as opportunities to develop business relationships that lead to long term mutual advantages. Cultural differences in internal sales negotiations could influence the verbal and nonverbal language and therefore affect the process itself. Depending on the culture of the negotiator, Danciu (2011) indicated that the style of negotiation could take various forms such as adaptation, avoidance, cooperation, competition, and compromise.

To overcome these differences in the style of negotiations, Danciu recommended identifying and analyzing the cultural distance well before a negotiation starts. The negotiator should develop international adaptation and cultural consciousness. Danciu also noted that business could be affected as one may be compelled to use the services of translators which may also affect the degree of relationship between business partners. Individuals and businesses which are interested in international businesses negotiations have to make effort to ensure negotiation success and this include cultural knowledge and sensitivity and adjusting capability.

Qu, D. M. (2015). The Impact of Cultural Difference on International Business Negotiations. Academic Leadership Journal in Student Research, 3(1), 4.

The difficulty brought by cultural differences on negotiation in international business was also studied by the Qu (2015) who identified the various ways in which negotiation is affected. It may affect the way in which parties relate, talk, demand made by partners, time management, and style of convincing the other party. Challenges in negotiations may arise due to differences in values, manner and customs, and ways of thinking (inductive or deductive thinking). Culture also affects the style of negotiation which may be vertical or horizontal as well as how the negotiation process is controlled. Novel ways of reducing cultural differences during negotiations were suggested by Qu (2015) and this included being well prepared by conducting a cultural audit of the other negotiating party to avoid misunderstandings. Establishing cross-cultural awareness and eliminating bias also help in making international business negotiations better. Developing effective ways of handling and reducing cultural differences play a huge role in making negotiations successful.

Hurn, B. J., & Tomalin, B. (2013). The Effect of Culture on International Negotiations. In Cross-Cultural Communication (pp. 162-190). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Differences in culture were also noted by Hurn and Tomalin (2013) to affect various aspects of international business negotiations including the style of communication, choice of the working language, decision making, etiquette and giving of gifts. Culture also affects the building of relationship, trust between negotiating parties, and the level of participation as well as interest in the business negotiation. To avoid language difficulties during negotiations, Hurn and Tomalin (2013) suggested speaking more slowly than usual without appearing patronizing, use of simple words, and employ both verbal and written summaries when possible. The use of translators and negotiators may also be necessitated by communication difficulties, but Hurn and Tomalin cautioned that this comes with the danger of mistranslation and loss of personal impact. It is therefore advised to use interpreters who are well qualified in the subject of negotiation. Additionally, interpreters should be available in both formal and informal social gatherings. To help businesses negotiate better at the international level, Hurn and Tomalin (2013) listed some of the qualities of the international negotiator which included good listening skills, sensitivity to cultural differences, orientation towards people, and high aspirations and ethical standards.